The age and sex distribution covers digital preference, age in five year age groups, population and sex ratio, young and old population, trends in growth rate and dependency ratio. A look at the age distribution by single years shows a tendency of age heaping and digital preference. With regard to population and sex ratio, the district had a population pyramid with a broad base indicating high birth and death rates. The general sex ratio for Liwale was 95 males for 100 females. Looking at the rural/urban differentials, the rural areas had a higher dependency ratio than the urban areas.

Concerning marital status, it was revealed that the majority of the people were either in the never married or married categories for both the rural and urban areas, which was the expected pattern. Besides, a comparison between 1988 and 2002 census figures revealed that, the percentage changes in all marital status categories ranged from 36 to 106 percent.

Literacy in the district was 58 percent among the population aged 5 years and above. Literacy in Kiswahili stood at 54 percent while 4 percent were literate in both Kiswahili and English. Furthermore, literacy rate was highest among those aged between 10 and 19 years. Literacy was also higher among the urban population than the rural.

With regard to education, the district showed a net enrolment rate of 60 percent. The enrolment rate for the rural population was 59 percent compared to 68 percent in the urban areas. The enrolment rate for males was 59 percent compared to that of females at 68 percent.

Data on economic activities for Liwale District led to the following observations. Concerning usual economic activity, 63.3 percent of the labour force was employed. On the other hand, 36.7 percent of the labour force was unemployed out of which 19.8 percent were fulltime students. Regarding current economic activity, 60.4 percent of the total labour force was employed, while 39.6 percent was unemployed, the majority of whom were full time students (15.3 percent). The data on employment status showed that slightly more than 91 percent of the labour force was engaged in agriculture and 4.3 percent in non-agriculture.

As for the households and housing, out of the total of 14,690 private households, 11,564 were in the rural areas and 3,126 were in the urban areas. The average household size declined since 1988. The average household size declined from 5.89 persons in 1988 to 5.01 in 2002. Rural households with 5.19 persons were larger than urban households with 3.30 persons.

With regard to main sources of energy, 69 percent used the wick lamp for lighting in the rural areas while in the urban areas the main source was hurricane lamp (42 percent) followed by the wick lamp (41 percent). In the rural areas firewood was the main source of energy for cooking (94 percent) while in the urban areas firewood was the main source for cooking (76 percent) followed by charcoal (21 percent). As for the main source of drinking water, in the rural areas river/stream scored 48 percent, unprotected well 37 percent and protected well 7 percent. In the urban areas, river/stream was the main source (53 percent) followed by piped water (45 percent).

Age and sex are the most basic and most important characteristics of a population. This information is used for a wide range of planning and administrative purposes such as determining the segments of the population qualified for voting, school enrolment, pensions and so forth.

In many developing countries, data on age are affected by, among other things, age misreporting due to ignorance of correct age, carelessness in reporting and recording, a general tendency to state age in a figure ending with certain “preferred” digits, and so forth.

As was the case with most censuses, the 2002 Population and Housing Census age and sex data were collected through the short and long questionnaires. All persons who spent the census night in the country were asked to state their ages in complete years. These data are presented in single years as well as in five year age groups.

Young and Old Population
The age distribution for Liwale District shows a young population. As Tables 1.4 and 1.5 below show, the proportion of the population under 15 years was 42 percent while the proportion of adults aged between 15 and 64 years was 54 percent. For the old population that was of age group 65 years and above the proportion was 4 percent. This is the pattern at national level as well as in other African countries.

Furthermore, table 1.5 below shows that the percentage of working population (15-64 age group) was higher in urban areas than in rural areas (59 versus 55 percent) for both sexes.

When comparison is made with the 1988 census (see table 1.6 below) not much difference is revealed for the cohort of age group 65 and above. There was a decrease in the proportions of the cohort of age group 0-14 from 46 percent in 1988 to 42 percent in 2002, and an increase in the proportion of the cohort of age group 15-64 from 50 percent in 1988 to 54 percent in 2002.

The issue of disability, of late, has been gaining recognition worldwide. This is due to the fact that the level of disability appears to be on the increase in most societies.

Appropriate interventions in this area by governments and non-governmental organizations may have not been very effective partly because of the lack of comprehensive data.

Persons with disability can play a useful role in society if given proper treatment and recognition. Hence, it has become imperative that disability data be collected in the census exercise.

The 2002 Population and Housing Census was the first Tanzania census to collect data on disability. The main driving force behind this decision was to meet the increasing demand for disability data by various stakeholders such as the Ministry of Labour, Youth Development and Sports; Ministry of Education and Culture; the Department of Poverty Eradication in the Vice President’s Office.

All persons were asked the questions on disability. The categories of disability that were included in the census questionnaire were:

• Physically Handicapped/Leprosy;
• Visually Impaired;
• Dumb;
• Hearing Impaired;
• Albino;
• Mentally Handicapped and
- Multiple Handicapped.

Literacy is the ability to read and write with an understanding of a short simple statement on every day life. It excludes the ability to only write or sign one’s own name or write memorized phrases. The ability to read and write may be in any language.

During the 2002 Population and Housing Census, data on literacy were obtained by asking 25 percent of individuals from private households aged 5 years and above if they could read and write in; Kiswahili only, English only; both Kiswahili and English or in any other language(s). No test was administered so as to identify those who were really literate. The question on literacy was only in the long questionnaire and therefore did not cover the entire population.

The measure of literacy is obtained by calculating the literacy rate which is the percentage of a specified population who are literate in a specified language(s). In crude terms the literacy rate is defined as the percentage of a population that can read and write in either all or one of the languages out of a given population.

During the 2002 Population Census, data on education were collected from 25 percent of persons from private households aged 5 years and above. The information was collected through two questions. In the first question the respondent was asked to state if he/she; was attending school, had dropped out of school, had completed school or had never been to school. The second question collected data on educational attainment, which were; level attending or level attained for those who had dropped out of or completed school.

It is important to capture information on economic activity at least for two main reasons; first, there is a need to ascertain the size and structure of the labour force; and second, there is a need to know its distribution by main occupation, industry and employment status with a view to streamlining and strengthening development planning endeavours.

Unlike the previous censuses, which covered only usual economic activities, the 2002 Population and Housing Census covered both usual and current economic activities. Also, the 5 – 9 age group was not covered during the previous censuses instead, only the 10 year and above age groups were covered. The inclusion of the 5 – 9 age group during the 2002 population and housing census was mainly due to increased demand for child labour statistics. Data on economic activity were collected from 25 percent of persons from private households aged 5 years and above.

In classifying the 2002 population by type of economic activity, the following categories were distinguished:

1. Working
2. Not working but looking for work
3. Not working but not looking for work
4. Student
5. Home Maker
6. Retired/Too old
7. Unable to work.

During the 2002 Population and Housing Census information collected on the households and housing conditions included:

• Number of persons in the household
• Number of rooms for sleeping
• Building materials for the main building (roofing, wall and floor materials)
• Main source of drinking water
• Main source of energy for lighting and cooking
• Type of toilet facility
• Availability of electricity
• Ownership of specified assets

The household questions were directed to the head of the household and covered 25 percent of the private households only. While the rooms for sleeping related to all housing units in use, the other questions on housing were in regard to the main building.

A household was defined as one or more persons who make himself or themselves provision for essentials of living. The persons in the group may be related, unrelated or both. But usually this type of household includes a husband, wife, children and other relatives. Collective households like boarding schools, prisons etc. are not covered in this chapter.

During the 2002 Population Census the household was more or less defined as explained above. However since the census was de-facto, slight modifications were made to the above definition. For instance visitors were also included as members of the household if they were present in the household on the census night. On the other hand usual members of the household were excluded if they had spent the census night away, unless they were away on night duty or fishing / hunting trip, etc.

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